"Cha" tea tree is a perennial evergreen tree of the Camellia family Camellia genus, and the scientific name is "Camellia Sinensis (L) O.Kuntze".
"Tea" is the raw leaves (mainly new shoots and young leaves) of this tea tree that are picked and processed. Black tea, Green tea, and Oolong tea are all originally made from the same tea tree.
The major difference is the processing method (mainly the difference in the fermentation process).
Depending on the environment, climate, topography, and altitude of the production area, there are varieties and cultivation/manufacturing methods suitable for the cultivation and processing of each type of "tea" such as black tea, green tea, and oolong tea.
Tea leaves are rich in polyphenols, but green tea, which is widely drunk in Japan and China, is manufactured by heat-treating the tea leaves immediately after harvesting to deactivate the enzymes in the leaves. Its composition is almost the same as that of fresh tea leaves. On the other hand, black tea, which accounts for 80% of the world's tea production, undergoes oxidation and fermentation of polyphenols, including catechins, by enzymes during the fermentation process, creating a mixture with a complex composition. is producing.
1) Small-leaf tea - Chinese species
Small-leaf tea varieties are shrubs (those that do not grow into trees even if left unattended), and have small leaves that contain a large amount of amino acids.
It is also used as a tea cultivar in the highlands due to its excellent cold resistance and ability to withstand harsh climatic conditions.
However, the yield is low and it is often a premium tea.
The main growing regions are China, Japan, Darjeeling in India, the highlands of Sri Lanka, Russia and Turkey.
2) Large-leaf tea - Assam species
The large leaf tea variety is a type of tree that grows into a tree if left unattended. It has large leaves but soft veins and a high tannin content, and is said to be suitable for black tea and oolong tea.
It is frost tolerant and grows in temperate climates.
It is efficient because the leaves are large and the yield is large.
Main growing areas are Assam in India, Yunnan Province in China, Sri Lanka and Africa,
and the lowlands of Darjeeling, India.
[Varieties of black tea]
1) China Variety Cameria sinensis var. sinensis
A tea strain originating from southwestern China. Shrub type with small leaves.
Because of its low catechin content, low enzyme activity, and resistance to oxidative fermentation, it is generally considered suitable for green tea, and is cultivated in green tea-producing countries such as China and Japan.
Until the discovery of the Assam variety in the 19th century, only the Chinese variety was available for making tea, so the seeds were brought to India and Java and cultivated.
In places such as Darjeeling in India and high-grown areas in Sri Lanka, old Chinese tea plants still exist, some of which are over 100 years old.
In addition, since Chinese varieties are resistant to cold, they are cultivated in places such as Iran, Georgia, and Turkey where winters are severe.
The Chinese variety is characterized by its light blue color, good aroma, and relatively little astringency.
Suitable for straight.
2) Assam Variery Cameria sinensis var. assamica
A tea strain discovered in 1823 by an Englishman, Bruce, in Shiv Sagar, Assam, India. A Takagi type with larger leaves than the Chinese variety.
Due to its high catechin content and strong enzyme activity, it is easily fermented, making it suitable for black tea.
It has a high yield, and most of the Assam varieties have been introduced not only in the Assam region, but also in emerging tea production areas such as Sri Lanka's low-grown teas, Indonesia, and Kenya.
The Assam variety is characterized by its deep red color, mellow aroma, and deep flavor with astringency and richness.
Also suitable for milk tea.
In addition, hybrids of Chinese and Assam varieties are called China Hybrids and Assam Hybrids.
3) Clonal Variery
Clonal seeds are made by cutting cuttings from excellent varieties to improve quality and increase quality black tea, and in Darjeeling, AV2 etc. are evaluated as excellent clonal seeds.
●Famous clonal species (China Hybrid): B157 (Bannockburn 157), P312 (Phoobsering 312), AV2 (Ambari Vegetative 2)
●Twenty-eight clonal species have been registered under the development and approval of the Tea Research Association.
Clonal varieties are grown for weather tolerance, disease and pest resistance, improved quality, and increased yield.
In general, clonal Darjeeling is characterized by a flowery scent like nectar and a sweet body.
Many tea estates in Darjeeling are undergoing clonal conversion and organic conversion to improve quality and yield.